alternate, basal (rosulate)
April - December
0.0 - 1.0
An annual, tap rooted forb with solitary stems branched near the top with numerous yellow heads borne at the top of the plant.
In the wild, seeds generally germinate in the fall and overwinter as rosettes (Caplenor 1961). Fresh seeds germinate within 2-4 days when planted in a greenhouse.
Very unpalatable to cattle. Sometimes eaten when forage is scarce and results in bitter milk.
A warm-season, shallow-rooted annual that reproduces by seed. One of many plants known as bitter weed because a few bites taken by a cow will result in bitter milk. It is unpalatable and in extreme overgrazing it can be toxic. It is an invader on overgrazed prairie and can be found in old fields and roadsides. It is shallow rooted and easily controlled by mowing and management for vigorous perennial species.
Open prairies, sandy soil, roadsides, pastures, fields, and waste places.