linear, elliptic, lanceolate
blue, pink, purple
May - October
0.9 - 2.5
Similar to V. bonariensis but has smaller diameter stems, more loosely arranged spikes, and the central stem leaves are subsessile or have petioles.
Seed germination is improved by cold/moist or cold/dry stratification (Steffen 1997).
An excellent nectar producer and good butterfly plant. Swarms of butterflies can often be seen flitting around the flowers on roadsides where it has colonized disturbed ground. The following information is for the genus Verbena: Animals that eat its seeds: Stilt sandpiper, Lark bunting, Cardinal, Junco, Field sparrow, Song sparrow, Swamp sparrow, Tree sparrow, White-crowned sparrow. Animals that the plant: Cottontail rabbit (Martin et al. 1951).
One of the more common, and vigorous, weedy exotics in coastal prairie. It is found in a variety of soil types, but is most common on dry sandy soils, throughout Louisiana and southeast Texas. It is native to most of South America and is now naturalized from Virginia to Florida and west along the gulf coast. It is also now reported from Oregon and California (Correll and Johnston 1979).
Waste places, dry sandy soil, coastal prairies.