elliptic, lanceolate, ovate
June - November
0.6 - 1.5
Best planted in natural areas and large meadows where large colonies can be appreciated. Can be rampant colonizer when planted in garden soils. Roots travel in all directions from plant about one foot deep. Difficult to control once plant is well established. Bloom period lasts from summer until frost.
Serves as a special value to native bees and attracts birds and butterflies. The plant is extremely bitter, and by preference is not grazed by livestock.
Disturbed sites, open woods, fields, rocky or sandy soils.