Achillea millefolium

yarrow, common yarrow, milenrama, milfoil, western yarrow, bloodwort, carpenter's weed, hierba de las cortaduras, plumajillo, milenrama, milfoil,


Leaf Arrangement


Leaf Attachment

petiolate, sessile, clasping

Leaf Type

bipinnate, compound, dissected, tripinnate

Leaf Shape


Growth Form


Flower Color


Flower Month

April - August

Height (meters)

0.2 - 1.0

Milky Sap





introduced, native



Growing Season

Warm season

Wetland Class


Prairie Coefficient of Conservatism


Field Characters

May be distinguished in the field by it leaves that are fern-like in appearance and have a bitter taste and spicy fragrance. The plants produce a distinctive rosette at the base of the old stems during the fall.

Cultural Information

Because yarrow is not native, it should not be planted in restorations. It is often included in wildflower mixes and may be appropriate in wildflower and wildlife plantings. Propagation by division is easy and best for small scale production. For larger scale plantings, seeds are a reliable method of establishment. The seeds are shiny, oblong, slightly flattened nutlets that are 2-3 mm long. They germinate in one to two weeks at soil temperature between 20 and 35 degrees C. Maguire and Overland (1959) obtained 80% germination in darkness with temperature alternations of 20 to 30 degrees C.

Animal Use

Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) is introduced. (Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; some observations are from Graenicher and Reed, otherwise they are from Robertson) Bees (long-tongued) Apidae (Bombini): Bombus auricomus cp; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re), Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cuneatus sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr), Megachile petulans cp Bees (short-tongued) Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon texanus (Re), Agapostemon virescens (Re), Augochlorella striata sn cp (Gr), Halictus (or Lasioglossum) sp. sn cp (Gr), Halictus confusus (Re), Halictus ligatus sn cp (Rb, Gr, Re), Lasioglossum cressonii sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum pectoralis (Re), Lasioglossum perpunctatus (Re), Lasioglossum pilosus pilosus sn cp (Rb, Gr), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq (Rb, Gr), Paralictus simplex sn; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus mesillae sn (Gr), Hylaeus modestus modestus sn (Gr) Wasps Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Anacrabro ocellatus (Gr), Ectemnius continuus (Re), Ectemnius dives (Gr), Ectemnius lapidarius (Gr), Ectemnius maculosus (Gr), Ectemnius rufifemur, Ectemnius trifasciatus (Gr), Oxybelus emarginatus, Oxybelus frontalis, Oxybelus niger (Gr), Oxybelus packardii, Oxybelus uniglumis (Gr); Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Cerceris clypeata (Gr), Cerceris compacta, Cerceris rufinoda, Philanthus bilunatus (Gr), Philanthus politus (Re); Gasteruptiidae: Gasteruption assectator (Gr); Leucospidae: Leucospis affinis (Gr); Perilampidae: Perilampus hyalinus (Gr, Re); Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus (Gr), Eumenes fraterna (Gr), Euodynerus foraminatus, Parancistrocerus fulvipes, Parancistrocerus pensylvanicus (Gr), Symmorphus cristatus (Gr) Flies Tabanidae: Chrysops striatus; Nemestrinidae: Neorhynchocephalus sackenii; Empididae: Rhamphomyia sp. (Gr); Stratiomyidae: Hedriodiscus vertebrata (Gr), Nemotelus nigrinus (Gr), Odontomyia cincta (Gr), Odontomyia virgo (Gr), Stratiomys normula (Gr), Stratiomys obesa (Re); Bombyliidae: Mulio leucoprocta, Toxophora amphitea; Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Rb, Gr), Epistrophe xanthostoma (Gr), Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis arbustorum (Rb, Gr), Eristalis barda (Re), Eristalis brousii (Gr), Eristalis dimidiatus, Eristalis tenax (Rb, Gr), Eristalis transversus (Rb, Gr), Eupeodes americanus (Rb, Gr), Helophilus chrysostomus (Gr), Mallota bautias, Orthonevra nitida, Paragus tibialis, Sphaerophoria contiqua (Rb, Gr), Syritta pipiens (Rb, Gr), Syrphus ribesii, Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Rb, Gr, Re); Conopidae: Physoconops brachyrrhinchus, Thecophora abbreviata (Gr), Thecophora occidensis; Tachinidae: Archytas analis (Rb, Gr), Cylindromyia carolinae (Gr), Epigrimyia polita (Rb, Gr), Gymnosoma fuliginosus, Gymnoclytia immaculata (Rb, Gr), Gymnoclytia occidua, Periscepsia laevigata, Senotainia rubriventris; Sarcophagidae: Ravinia anxia, Sarcophaga spp. (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata; Calliphoridae: Helicobia rapax (Rb, Gr), Lucilia sp. (Gr), Lucilia caesar (Gr), Phormia regina (Gr), Pollenia rudis (Gr); Muscidae: Graphomya maculata (Gr), Helina evecta (Gr), Morellia micans (Gr), Neomyia cornicina; Anthomyiidae: Anthomyia sp. (Gr), Anthomyia acra, Calythea pratincola (Gr), Delia platura (Rb, Gr); Sepsidae: Themira putris (Gr); Lauxaniidae: Camptoprosopella vulgaris Butterflies Nymphalidae: Limenitis arthemis astyanax (Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Re); Lycaenidae: Satyrium calanus (Gr), Satyrium edwardsii (Re) Skippers Hesperiidae: Euphyes vestris (Re) Moths Pterophoridae: Geina tenuidactylus (Gr), Emmelina monodactyla (Gr) Beetles Cerambycidae: Euderces picipes (Gr); Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus (Gr); Mordellidae: Mordella melaena, Mordellistena comata (Gr); Scarabaeidae: Trichiotinus piger (Gr) Plant Bugs Lygaeidae: Lygaeus turcicus (Gr), Neacoryphus bicrucis (Gr); Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Cimex ruficornis (Gr), Lygus pratensis (Gr) Yarrow is unpalatable to livestock. It provides little value for wildlife as forage or habitat.

Natural History

A cultivated plant that has escaped cultivation and now occurs in disturbed soil nearly everywhere in the lower 48 states. A warm-season forb with fibrous roots that reproduces by seed and rootstocks. The genus name Achillea is thought to stem from the plant's mention as a medicine by Achilles of Homer's Iliad. Western Yarrow (Achillea lanulosa) is a native that occurs in other areas of Texas and is very similar to A. millefolium.


Disturbed soil.

Plant Uses

It has long been used as a medicine or tonic.