alternate, basal (rosulate)
linear, elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, ovate
May - October
0.3 - 2.4
Similar to H. drummondii but has up to 30 flower heads per plant and are often uniformly pubescent while H. drummondii has only one to three flower heads per plant and is scarcely pubescent. Helenium drummondii and H. autumnale may be confused with Helenium flexuosum and Gaillardia aestivalis which have purple disk flowers, while those of H. drummondii and H. autumnale are yellow.
It is easily grown from seed and has high germination rates when sowing fresh seed shallowly in flats in a greenhouse. Storred seed are reported to benefit from cold/moist stratification (Steffen 1979). There is some evidence that the seeds of this species may germinate better under diffuse light than in darkness (Mitchell 1926). There are 1,600,000 seed/lb and the recommended planting rate is 2 lbs/acre. Clumps may be divided from fall to spring.
Prefers wet to wet mesic sites and rich loam soil with a pH of 6-7. It is found along swamp edges, moist prairies, and sedge meadows. The common name results from the use of its dried leaves as snuff.
Alluvial pastures, wet meadows, bogs, and ditches.